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Most of the construction materials research now concerns on investigation of construction materials that is locally produced at a rate and cost compatible with the pace of construction. The present paper is concerned with investigation of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) produced from local available materials in JORDAN. The produced SCC contains the local stone cut waste powder which is called Al-KHAMKHA in JORDAN with different replacement of (0%, 10%, and 25%) of fine silica aggregate ; the study also investigate s the effects of SP33 super plasticizer which is used by different doses (1%, 1.5% and 2%) for cement. The slump flow and the compressive strength of SCC were studied and the experimental results indicate the possibility of using Al-KHAMKHA in the production of SCC as the results showed that the compressive strength of the SCC with 10 % replacement by al-khamkha together with 1% SP33 super plasticizer was higher compared to pure SCC without al-khamkha ; the results also showed that as al-khamkha content increased the slump flow decrease d .

Marble and building stones are commonly used in the construction of residential houses and public buildings, during the last decades the natural building stone industry has grown significantly, and recently, marble production contributes approximately 66% to industrial exports of gross national exports in Jordan [

Marble and building stones are produced by taking rock from the earth and reducing it to the required shapes and sizes for construction and this process results in producing solid, powder, and slurry wastes with a wide range in quantity [

Construction materials properties changed considerably as the design of buildings developed this create continuous demand for new building material to meet the new requirements for the construction projects such as SCC which was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures [

Flow property is very important for SCC which allows the SCC to be suitable for placing concrete in difficult service conditions like congested steel, and difficult formwork shapes, where access is difficult. Thus SCC saves time, labor, equipment requirements and formwork damage [

The construction materials researchers now face the challenge of recycling of different industrial wastes into construction materials especially the locally produced wastes and because of local variations in properties of available materials the purpose of this paper is to investigate the SCC properties containing locally produced stone cut powder Al-KHAMKHA as replacement of fine silica aggregate along with the effect of different doses of (SP33) superplasticizer.

Utilization of al-khamkha in construction sector is essential in order to minimize this waste and help in environmental prevention. Moreover, it is an alternative material to replace natural sand and silica materials. This study supports the sustainable use of natural resources and overcome the negative idea of al-khamkha and thus considers it as a resource to be used in construction sector in Jordan.

Kishan P. Pala et al. (2015) [

Ranjodh Singh et al., (2013) [

M. Shahul Hameed, et al. (2012) [

Bouziani et al. (2011) [^{3} to 350 kg/m^{3}, improves the properties at fresh state by decreasing v-funnel flow time (from 5 s to 1.5 s) and increasing the mini-cone slump (from 28 cm to 34 cm). With 250 kg/m^{3} of marble powder, SCSC have the highest initial viscosity, compared to the marble powder contents of 150 kg/m^{3} and 350 kg/m^{3}. In other hand, the 28-days compressive strength decreases with an increase of marble powder content.

The main parameter taken into consideration in this work were, dosage of a super plasticizer admixture (SP33) and the percentage of fine silica replacement by al-khamkha.

All types of cement can be used for SCC mixtures, for all mixes in this study locally produced ordinary portland cement, conforming to ASTM Type-1 standards, was used. Available natural silica sand is used as fine aggregate, and natural available coarse aggregate with 20 mm maximum size is used.

Chemical admixtures are important and necessary components for any SCC. The chemical Floret SP33 superplasticizing admixture based on viscosity enhanced admixture was used with different dosages as a water-reducing agent to improve the workability.

Color | Brown liquid |
---|---|

Freezing point | −2C^{ } |

Specific gravity | 1.19 ± 0.02 |

Chloride content: BS 5075 | Nil |

Air entrainment | Typically less than 2% additional air is entrained above control mix at normal dosages |

Stone cut powder (al-khamkha) obtained from the discharge point of a stone-cutting plant in JERASH-JORDAN was oven dried and used in SCC mixtures without any more processing. The engineering properties of stone cutting slurry is presented in Tables 2-4.

The pure control concrete mix (without al-khamkha and SP33Admixture) has been designed to obtain 28-day compressive strength of 20 MPa. All SCC mixes were designed to develop a 28-day compressive strength of 20 MPa, similar to that of the pure control concrete.

Fine silica was replaced with al-khamkha by weight with (10%, 25%). SP33 superplasticizer introduced with three different dosages: 1%, 1.5% and 2% of cement content. The mixtures were designated as PC (pure concrete) and different mixes of (C + % K + % SP33) (Concrete plus different% of al-khamkha +% of SP33 superplasticizer).

The pure concrete mixture proportion was obtained based on ACI211.1 method. All concrete mixtures were prepared in drum mixer, first, the coarse aggregate, silica, and al-khamkha are introduced and one half of mixing water added and drum mixer rotated for two minutes. Next, the cement were introduced with SP33 superplasticizer already mixed in the remaining water and the drum mixer was rotated for 5 minutes, till the homogeneous SCC mix was obtained, then the flow test and the compressive strength test were conducted.

Parameter% | Torres, et al. (2004) Granite slurry % [ | Turgut, et al. (2007) Limestone dust % [ | Ferreira, et al. (2004) Granite slurry % [ |
---|---|---|---|

SiO_{2 } | 71.65 | 0.26 | 61.2 |

CaO | 1.83 | 56.19 | 6.6 |

Fe_{2}O_{3 } | 2.86 | 0.3 | 12.4 |

Al_{2}O_{3 } | 14.25 | 0.25 | 12.4 |

MgO | 0.86 | 0.0 | 0.4 |

LOI % | 0.1 | 42.56 | 0.68 |

Type of stone waste | Calcium oxide % CaO | Silica % SiO_{2} | Aluminum Trioxide % Al_{2}O_{3} | Ferrous oxide % Fe_{2}O_{3} | Magnesium oxide % MgO | loss on ignition % LOI |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Lime stone waste | 49.9 | 9.92 | 1.06 | 0.404 | 0.2 | 38 |

Type of stone | Specific gravity | Bulk density | color |
---|---|---|---|

Lime stone | 26.265 | 15.7 - 17.5 | White/dirty white |

To evaluating the workability of fresh SCC the slump flow test was used which indicates the free, unrestricted deformability of SCC (filling ability). The slump flow for All SCC mixes was determined following ASTM C 1611/C 1611M. The slump flow test consists of a base plate and slump cone that conforms to ASTM C-143 standard (

The Flow spread [mm] is the average of the largest diameter of the flow spread (dmax) and the one perpendicular to it (dperp), as shown in Equation (1)

The flow spread of SCC typically ranges from 455 to 810 mm depending on the requirements of the project.

Hardened SCC was measured in terms of its performance by means of compressive strength at ages of 7 and 28 days. The 28 day design compressive strength was established as 20 MPa for all SCC mixtures. Following the completion of the flow testing, the SCC was poured into specimens, and placed in order to prepare the samples for the compressive strength testing. For each mix 6 standard cubes (150 × 150 × 150) and 6 standard cylindrical concrete samples (with a diameter of 150 mm and a length of 300 mm) were prepared and casted without any vibration or compaction. Specimens were demoulded one day after casting and then cured in water at approximately 20˚C until testing was carried out at 7 and 28 days age. The average compressive strengths were obtained from three cubes and three cylinders for each batch at each age. The tests were performed in accordance with the ASTM C39 standards.

Mix Proportion | Slump Flow (mm) |
---|---|

C + 1% SP33 | 500 |

C + 1.5% SP33 | 620 |

C + 2% SP33 | 730 |

C + 10% K + 1% SP33 | 350 |

C + 10% K + 1.5% SP33 | 410 |

C + 10% K + 2% SP33 | 520 |

C + 25% K + 1% SP33 | 340 |

C + 25% K + 1.5% SP33 | 360 |

C + 25% K + 2% SP33 | 480 |

In general from

The obtained values of pure concrete compressive strength according to the different used percentage of al-khamkha for cube specimens are shown in

The maximum compressive strength (21 MPa) was achieved by (C + 10% K) concrete mix; it was 6.061% more than the control mix P.C at 7 days age.

At the age of 28 days, the achieved compressive strength of mixtures (C + 10% K) and (C + 25%K) were (25.5 MPa) and (21.2 MPa), respectively. The percentage increase in compressive strength was 28.8% and 7.071% for mixtures (C + 10% K) and (C + 25% K) than P.C control mix.

From the above observations, it is clearly seen that for P.C, al-khamkha substitution should be limited to approximately 10% for optimal performance.

The values of SCC cube samples compressive strength results at age 7 and 28 days for 10% and 25% replacement of fine silica with al-khamkha are shown in

For comparison purposes,

As illustrated in figures, at the age of 7 days compressive strength of PC was (18.7 MPa) and maximum compressive strength (18.7 MPa) was achieved by (C + 10% K + 1% SP33) mix it was same compressive strength as PC mix.

At the age of 28 days, compressive strength of P.C was (19.8 MPa) and maximum compressive strength (18.8 MPa) was achieved by (C + 10% K + 1% SP33) mix. The compressive strength is decreased by 5% than PC mix.

SCC mix with higher the percentage of al-khamkha and higher dose of SP33 (C + 25% K + 2% SP33) had lowered compressive strength value.

These results imply that SCC with low percentage of al-khamkha replacement exhibits higher compressive strength.

As can be seen from the figures, at the age of 7 days, compressive strength of PC was (18.7 MPa) and maximum compressive strength is (15.8 MPa) was

observed for (C + 10% K + 2% SP33) mix. The compressive strength is decreased by 15.5% than PC mix.

At the age of 28 days, compressive strength of PC was (18.3 MPa), and maximum compressive strength (18.7 MPa) was observed for (C + 10% K + 1% SP33), (C + 10% K + 2% SP33) and (C + 25% K + 1% SP33) mix. The compressive strength is increased by 2% over PC mix.

The compressive strength of the SCC cylindrical samples showed distinct values for the mix (C + 25% K + 1% SP33) which had similar compressive strength as the mix (C + 10% K + 1% SP33).

The lowered compressive strength value was achieved by the mix (C + 25% K + 2% SP33) that had maximum percentage of replacement and maximum dose of SP33.The highest compressive strength in both kinds of samples was achieved by the mix (C + 10% K + 1% SP33).

Results of compressive strength for each 10% K and 25% K replacement mix compared to P.C compressive strength are summarized in

In this experimental study both fresh and hardened properties of self compacting concrete produced from local available materials in Jordan were investigated. The SCC mixes were prepared both with and without al-khamkha waste with different doses of SP33 superplasticizer. Based on the results, it can conclude that it is possible to design self compacting concrete mix with different contents of locally available stone cut powder (al-khamkha) as partial replacement of fine silica aggregate. The effect of al-khamkha content and the SP33 dosages on fresh and hardened properties of SCC are listed below:

1) Different contents of al-khamkha as partial replacement of fine silica aggregate give different slump flow properties. The slump flow varied between the ranges of 340 - 730 mm. It has been observed that the slump flow is decreased with increases of al-khamkha content, and as SP33 superplasticizer dosage increase the slump flow increase.

Mix ID | Specimens type | Compressive strength Age | 28 days compressive strength deviation from the control pure concrete | |
---|---|---|---|---|

7 days MPa | 28 days MPa | |||

P.C | Cube | 18.7 | 19.8 | - |

Cylinder | 17.8 | 18.1 | - | |

C + 10%K | Cube | 21 | 25.5 | increased by 28.8% |

Cylinder | 16.4 | 18.3 | increased by 1.1% | |

10%K + 1%Sp | Cube | 18.7 | 18.8 | decreased by 5% |

Cylinder | 15 | 18.7 | increased by 3.3% | |

10%K + 1.5%Sp | Cube | 17.6 | 18.1 | decreased by 8.5% |

Cylinder | 14.1 | 15.3 | decreased by 15.5% | |

10%K + 2%Sp | Cube | 16.6 | 16.9 | decreased by14.6% |

Cylinder | 15.8 | 18.7 | increased by 3.3% |

Mix ID | Specimens type | Compressive strength Age | 28 days compressive strength deviation from the control pure concrete | |
---|---|---|---|---|

7 days MPa | 28 days MPa | |||

P.C | Cube | 18.7 | 19.8 | - |

Cylinder | 17.8 | 18.1 | - | |

C + 25%K | Cube | 16.9 | 21.2 | increased by 7.1% |

Cylinder | 14.7 | 17 | decreased by 6.1% | |

25%K + 1%Sp | Cube | 15.1 | 15.6 | decreased by 21.2% |

Cylinder | 15.3 | 18.7 | increased by 3.3% | |

25%K + 1.5%Sp | Cube | 17.6 | 18.1 | decreased by 8.6% |

Cylinder | 18.7 | 15.3 | decreased by 15.5% | |

25%K + 2%Sp | Cube | 12.4 | 15.2 | decreased by 23.2% |

Cylinder | 9.1 | 13 | decreased by 28.2% |

2) Al-khamkha as partial replacement of fine silica aggregate contributes to the harden property of SCC. The produced SCC developed compressive strengths ranging from (12.4 to 21 MPa) and from (15.2 to 25.5 MPa), at 7 and 28 days for cube specimens, and developed compressive strengths ranging between (9.1 to 17.8 MPa) and from (13 to 18.7 MPa), at 7 and 28 days for cylindrical specimens, respectively.

3) The SCC mix with 10% replacement of fine silica aggregate by al-khamkha together with 1% SP33 superplasticizer shows greater compressive strength as compared with other replacement levels.

Suliman, M.O., Alsharie, H., Yahia, Y.I.O. and Masoud, T. (2017) Effects of Stone Cutting Powder (Al-Khamkha) on the Properties of Self- Compacting Concrete. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 5, 613-625. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2017.54052