The Patching Information section claimed that the patch requires a headered rom. This was definitely a mistake, so I changed it.
I added a header to the original rom and the patch produced a buggy uncensored sprite with stray pixels floating around the main character. Patching a clean headerless rom restored the uncensored sprite without any graphical errors, as shown in the screenshots. Plus, the readme itself doesn't say anything about a header, which further proves the uploader made a mistake when filling in the patching details.