That basically answers what I was wondering!
In Brigandine, these 'battle quips' are used to reinforce the characters main traits. Unless you're playing as Ulster's country, the above text is the only dialog you see to flesh out his character other than his unit description. So it's important for me to get right.
I get that he's upset, but since Ulster doesn't blurt out something definitive like "You will die for insulting my honor," when he says 'a princess from a decent court like yours couldn't understand what I've been through' I could almost picture it being him asking for sympathy. As in 'yeah the nut jobs I work for are bad I wish I worked someplace like you do princess"
Or, I could picture it meaning he's irate as in 'how dare you call me bad when the people I work with are worse".
Maybe I'm just obsessing on this and splitting hairs, but I try to 'flavor' my word translation choices to support such distinctions.