Well, the healing items sound like they’re all wordplay, and I just know
I’m not in on the joke, but if I had to guess...
ごくろさん - sounds to me like the phrase ご苦労様, but the lack of the う makes it sound like it’s ご黒さん or something (and kampō
certainly has “pills” that are dispensed in little black balls)
おりご - sounds a bit like ありがとう with very little enunciation. But オリゴ is also a transliteration of the prefix “oligo-”, which shows up in
ぶいぶい - sounds like “V V”? That’s what it often means these days. But it’s also the supposed sound a certain kind of beetle makes, and apparently it’s a dated way of booing people.
For the named equipment, these are the most likely kanji, but there are no guarantees. Plus, it doesn’t really change the fact that they are names and don’t really translate.
てんちまる - 天地丸 - Heaven and Earth + the suffix -maru (applied to names of animals, ships, swords, and at one time young boys, its usual explained meaning is that it is completely like something or other)
しんけんまる - 真剣丸 - “shinken” both means a “real sword” and “serious”
しょうりゅう - 昇龍 - Rising Dragon (this is armor, it seems)
あたか - 安宅 - Ataka, an area of Komatsu, and also the title of a Noh play; its literal meaning is “safe house”, which is what it means if pronounced “antaku” instead (might also be a pun on “attacker”)
おにわか - 鬼若 - Oni + suffix “waka” (meaning “young”, and in olden times this was often used in young boys’ names, sometimes along with “maru”). The actual name Oniwaka was the boyhood name of Benkei.
むつのかみ - 陸奥守 - This almost certainly comes from the name of a real sword, Mutsunokami Yoshiyuki. “Mutsu” (ironically meaning “inner land”) was an outlying province of old Japan, and “kami” (in this case meaning “protector”) was at one time a title that roughly meant being a governor of a province (it was a particular rank of kokushi).